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Tushan Mountain No. 2 Han Tomb
Release time:2017/3/22 16:43:50                  The number of clicks:3496

      The people of Xuzhou have a special complex of Tushan Mountain. This was once a place for muddy bombs and smashing mud in the fart group. It used to be an excellent source of clay for the old people, and there were factories and villages in the past, where generations live together and have a peaceful life.

Tushan Mountain in the 1930s

Tushan Mountain in the 1980s

      Regarding Tushan Mountain, Xuzhou people can tell a beautiful story. it is said that at the end of the Qin Dynasty, the adviser Fan Zeng helped Xiang Yu overthrew the Qin dynasty. The soldiers loved him and after his death shoulder soils to build the tomb for him, which is the Tushan Mountain today.

      However, an unintentional excavation in the late 1960s rewritten all this.

      In 1969, residents took soil and found Tomb No. 1.

      In 1970, the Nanjing Museum organized the excavation of Tomb  No. 1.

      In 1977, the Xuzhou Museum fully drilled Tushan Mountain, and discovered Tomb No. 2 and cleared its eastern side room.

      In 2002, Xuzhou Museum excavated Tomb No. 3.

      In 2004, the Xuzhou Museum began excavation of Tomb No. 2. By 2007, the excavation work of the enclosed area was basically completed.

      In 2012, the protection and permanent display of Tushan Han Tombs was completed and opened to the public.

      In 2014, the Xuzhou Museum continued to excavate Tomb No. 2 and entered the indoor archeological stage.

      In 2017, we will witness more ...

      The archeological work of the Tushan Mountain Han Tomb has been carried out intermittently for nearly half a century since the end of the 1960s. Today's Tushan Mountain Han Tomb, as one of the important symbols of Xuzhou and Han culture, has become an important part of the Xuzhou Museum. It is currently the only well-preserved tomb of the Eastern Han princes in Xuzhou. Tall seals, thousands of tomb seals, complete tombs, and exquisite cultural relics all show the royal style of King Pengcheng of the Eastern Han Dynasty. The environment here is elegant, tree-lined, and traveling around, you can experience the thick and vicissitudes of history, which is a big joy in life.

What was excavated in Tushan Mountain Han Tomb?

      Someone may ask, since the excavation of Tushan Mountain Tomb in 2004, 13 years has past. Even from 2014, it has been exaggerated for 4 years. What was dug? Listen for more detail.

      2004-2007 was the first stage of excavation of Tushan Mountain Tomb No. 2.

      In 2004, Tushan Mountain Tomb No. 2 was officially approved for archeological excavation by the State Administration of Cultural Heritage, mainly excavation of the enclosed area above the grave room. This work has continued for nearly 3 years, and was basically completed in 2007. Unlike the relatively pure tomb mounds commonly used in ancient China, the mounds at Tushan Han tombs are extremely messy. The yellow-gray rammed soil is mixed with a large number of Han Dynasty tube tiles, slab tiles, tile tiles, pottery fragments, and bamboo and wooden fragments. It is even more rare that a large amount of the Western Han Dynasty sealing mud was found in the sealing soil. The letter stamp is an ancient letter seal with a seal to prevent it from being opened privately. It was mainly popular in the Qin and Han dynasties). The discovery of a large number of sealing muds is extremely important for the study of the social situation in the Han Dynasty. If archaeologists get the treasure, the excavation of the sealing soils is meticulous, and the earthwork for external transportation must be screened and screened many times. So far, more than 4,500 mounds have been sealed in the Tushan Seal, including official seals, private seals, and letterless seals. The era is almost the same as that of the Western Han Dynasty.


      A large amount of the Western Han Dynasty mud was found in the mounds of the tomb of the King of Pengcheng in the Eastern Han Dynasty. What happened? Some scholars have studied it for a long time, thinking that "the sealing mud obtained by Tushan Mountain is not its original accumulation, but a secondary accumulation caused by human transportation." The accompanying building elements inferred that "the original site of the Tushan Seal Mud Group should be the Prime Minister's Office of the Western Han Dynasty and Chu Kingdom. This seems to be fun. In the article, analysis of the original accumulation site and nature of the sealing mud unearthed in the Tushan Han Tomb" will make you think.

      The excavation in the first stage provided the basis for the protection and display of the Tushan Han Tombs. In the following years, the Tushan Mountain Han Tombs entered the planning and construction period. By the completion of the "Four in One" project of the Xuzhou Museum in 2012, the Tushan Mountain Han Tombs  became part of the Xuzhou Museum. Archaeological work has a better excavation environment and entered the stage of indoor excavation.

Since 2014, it is the second stage of the excavation of Tushan Mountain Tomb No. 2. There are the following important findings.

First, clean up the cemetery. It is found that there are two door closing facilities outside the tomb door. One door on the north side is blocked by a smooth polished rectangular block. A neatly built brick wall is used on the south side. There are side rooms on each side of the tomb road. Judging from the excavation situation, Tushan Mountain Han Tomb No. 2 has obvious secondary opening phenomenon.

Stone door

Niche on the tomb wall

      Second, the upper part of the cemetery was cleared. Sealing stones are stacked in a row in the north-south direction and stacked on the tomb. There are 4 layers in total, 16 rows in each layer, ranging from 16-21 blocks in each row, and a total of more than 1,100 sealing stones. These sealing stones are mainly square, with a side length of 90-100 cm and a thickness of 28-40 cm. The surface has clear processing marks. Some wedges are left with excavated wedges, and most of them are engraved with information such as the name of the craftsman or the placement of the seals. Due to the long time and the collapse of the brick vault burial chamber, most of the sealed stones have been broken, and archeologists have done a lot of restoration and protection work.

      Third, clean up stolen holes. In a robber's hole that penetrated through nearly 20 meters of rammed soil, through four layers of sealing stones, and entered the main tomb, archaeological finds of more than 30 pieces of copper wire jade and two pieces of silver wire jade. It can be proven that at least two deceased were buried in Tushan Mountain Tomb No. 2.

      What did the experts say?

      At this point, the excavation work of the Tushan Mountain Han tomb has been basically completed, and the tomb cleaning work is about to be entered. As the experts said, "Tunshan excavation has entered a new stage of refinement, and we must do a good job in multi-departmental collaboration such as archeological excavations, cultural relics protection, display and publicity." On March 14, 2017, the Xuzhou Museum organized an archaeological excavation demonstration meeting for Tushan Mountain Tomb No. 2 , and asked the expert group to review the excavation results of the previous stage and demonstrate the next excavation plan. What did the experts say about an important archeological excavation project like Tushan Mountain Han Tomb?

       As part of the project of Xuzhou Museum display, the archeology of the Tushan Han Tombs has superior natural conditions, and the excavation itself is laboratory archeology. Director Lin Liugen of the Jiangsu Provincial Institute of Archaeology said, "Simply speaking, moving field excavations into the room is laboratory archeology. Tushan Han Tombs have such conditions. The next excavation will enter the stage of refinement, which must be carried out in accordance with laboratory archeological requirements. To standardize the excavation work, excavation of the burial chamber, especially the cloister requires multi-disciplinary cooperation to extract the original information to the greatest extent. "In view of the irreversibility of archeological excavations, Mr. Zou Houben, an archaeologist at the Nanjing Museum, proposed" refining the specific operating procedures, areas or modules of excavation work. Discover and strive for zero mistakes. " According to the future protection and display requirements of Tushan Han tombs, experts pointed out that the soil sealing, stone sealing and burial chambers of Tushan are the main subjects for public display in the future. The protection work should be strengthened. The excavation process of the cemetery chambers should be done on the premise of ensuring safety. It may remain intact, and on-site reinforcement and protection must be performed for important remains such as niches on both sides of the tomb and the top of the tomb door. Experts unanimously affirmed Tushan's concept of "opening while excavating," and suggested that the excavation of Tushan Han tombs should develop ideas, establish a public archeological project system, expand its influence, and promote Xuzhou and Han culture. Dean Shi Jiazhen of Luoyang Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology proposed that "the public archeology of Tushan Han Tombs should open up horizons, and can combine the randomness and professionalism of public participation, and implement various forms such as volunteers and members." In his concluding speech, Chang pointed out: "Tushan archeological excavations should focus on the goals of serving the public and society, and require higher standards. A detailed and feasible excavation plan should be formulated to make the Tushan project one of the important windows for displaying Han culture in Jiangsu province. "

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