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History of Xuzhou

       Xuzhou is located in the middle area of eastern coastal region of China, at the same time, in the west-north of Jiangsu province. It administers 5 districts, including Tongshan, Yunlong, Gulou, Quanshan, Jiawang, and 5 counties, including Fengxian, Peixian, Suiningxian, Pizhou and Xinyi.

       Xuzhou enjoys an advantageous location, with its north yo Qi and Lu, south to Yangze river and Huai River, east to the ocean and west to the central plain. Xuzhou is hilly with valley and abundance since ancient time, therefore it has been richly endowed by nature. Xuzhou has long been honored as “connecting five provinces” in a sense that Xuzhou was the joint of five ancient provinces of China. Because the Old Yellow River from west to east and the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal from north to south run through Xuzhou city and Beijing-Shanghai railway line  and Lanzhou-Lianyungang railway line meet here. Now, it is the regional central city of four provinces, Jiangsu, Shandong, Henan and Anhui.

       Xuzhou is the national historical and cultural city with more than 4000 history of city construction and the origin of Han Dynasty.

       The microlith unearthed from Malinghshan in Xinyi of Xuzhou indicates that human activity has been appeared here since 1 million years ago. The Xizyuandun Longshan Culture Ruins in the eastern foot of Yunlong Mountain declares that ancestors lived and multiplied here 4000 years ago.

       Xuzhou was named Pengcheng in ancient time which means that Xuzhou had a city called Peng. According to the record of shiji, the son of Luzhong family of Xia Dynasty, called Jiankeng established a state called Pengfang. Jiankeng was Pengkeng and the forefather of Pengcheng, and that was the god of longevity. During Shang, Pengcheng was very strong and was called the “Great Peng”. According to Luo Zhenyu’s “The Text of Yin Xu ”, we have a kind of oracular inscriptions on tortoise shells and bones: “foretelling in Xinchou that Yuan and Zhen attack Pengcheng”. That is to say the King of Shang, Wu, made a divination that they wanted to attack Pengcheng which was strong but was threatening to them. According to another book called “Annals on Bamboo”, we know that the troop of the King destroyed Pengcheng in 43th year of Wuding. Pengcheng was existed about 800 years during the Xia and Shang and subordinated to Song. According to “Zuo zhuan”, Pengcheng was an important city in the eastern Song, called Pengcheng City. According to Qianmu, Song was threatened by Wei and other counties and Song moved their capital to Pengcheng during Warring State period.

       Pencheng had some counties in Qin Dynasty. During Qin and Han, the great conqueror of western Chu, Xiangyu, ordered the world and directed 9 counties with the capital of Pencheng. In the 6th year of Liubang’s reign (201 B.C.), Liubang enfeoffed Chu to his half-brother, Liujiao. Chu directed Donghai, Xue and Pengcheng with the capital of Pengcheng. During the early Eastern Han Dynasty, the Guangwu King enfeoffed Chu to his son, Liuying. In the second year of Zhanghe (88 A.D.), the Zhang King enfeoffed Pengcheng to his half-brother Liugong to be the King of Pengcheng by the posthumous edict, and also with the capital of Pengcheng. During the Weiming King’s reign (227-239) of the Three Kingdom, Pengcheng become the seat of the department of Cishi of Xuhzou. Meantime, Caoju was the Pengcheng King in 6th of Taihe (232 A.D.).

        During the Nan and Bei Dynasties, Xuzhou was also the Xingtai of the eastern and southern road. The emperor set up Xuzhou Explorer House in Northern Zhou and Sui-tang Dynasties. During Tang Dynasty, Xuzhou was the governor of Xusihao, Wuningjun and Ganhuajun. During Five Dynasties and Northern Song, there were the governor of Xuzhou and Wuningjun. Ancient Xuzhou region was apart of Wuan State and Pengcheng was subordinated to Wuan State during Yuan Dynasty. During Ming and Qing Dynasty, Xuzhou region was apart of Zhili State, until the 11th year of Yongzheng’s reign (1733), those states become provinces.