Xuzhou Han Culture Academic
◇ Exhibition time:Permanent exhibition
◇ Exhibition venue:Xuzhou Museum 2F
The wind rises strongly, flies with clouds.
Weijia is home in the sea,
Be brave enough to guard the four sides!
——Liu Bang, Dafeng Song
A gale song sings the ancient wind of the Han Dynasty, and contains the thousands of weather of more than four hundred years of the Han Dynasty.
In the second year of Liu Bang's accession to the throne (201 BC), the Emperor Gaozu of the Han Dynasty granted his younger brother Liu Jiao to the State of Chu, the thirty-six counties of Wangdonghai, Xuejun and Pengcheng, the capital of Pengcheng. During the Eastern Han Dynasty, the state of Chu was first granted here, and then Pengcheng and Xiapi. During the Han Dynasty, the politics, economy and culture of this region developed greatly.
So far, the capitals of the State of Chu in the Western Han Dynasty and the State of Pengcheng and the State of Xiapi in the Eastern Han Dynasty have been confirmed by archaeological excavations. Nearly 40 royal tombs of the two Han kings have been discovered and excavated. The unearthed cultural relics are magnificent and exquisite.
Part I Mingguang Precious Ware - the display of bronze wares in Mingguang Palace of the Tomb of the Queen of Chu in Dongdongshan
In 1982, thirteen bronzes with inscriptions were unearthed from the tomb of the Queen of Chu in Dongdongshan, Xuzhou, all of which were used by the court of the Han Dynasty, including bronze tripods, bronze bells, copper spoons, bronze lanterns, copper plates, and some of which had inscriptions such as "Mingguang Palace" and "Zhao Ji".
Mingguang Palace is one of the palaces in Chang'an City of the Han Dynasty. It was built in the fourth year of the reign of Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty (101 BC). In the first year of the founding of the People's Republic of China (8 AD), Wang Mang renamed it Ding'an Palace, which has been around for 109 years. According to the Sanfu Huang Tu • Ganquan Palace, "Emperor Wu asked for immortals to raise the Ming Palace and sent two thousand Yanzhao beauties to fill it." Zhao Ji in the inscription, the owner of these bronzes, or one of their favorite concubines, was sent out of the palace by the emperor to Pengcheng of the State of Chu.
Part II Shower Orchid Mufang - Shower Display
In the Western Han Dynasty, on the basis of inheriting the bathing etiquette in the pre-Qin period, bathing gradually became the social fashion of the royal aristocracy.
The second room on the west side of the tomb of King Chu at Shizishan is a bathtub library, which unearthed bronze Jian, silver Jian for bathing, copper cauldron for boiling water, copper handrail (mao), copper flat pot for drawing water, and various cosmetic boxes, crockery and bath spices. The name of the royal office of the King of Chu is engraved on the bathing apparatus, which shows that the royal bathing procedure of the State of Chu is complex and exquisite. The purpose of bathing has long gone beyond the purpose of cleaning the body, and more attention is paid to beauty, health care, health preservation and etiquette.
Part III Gold and silver display
The production of gold and silver in the Han Dynasty has been valued and monopolized by the government. It has been separated from the traditional bronze metal technology and has become an independent handicraft industry. Craftsmen can skillfully use various processes such as sheet metal, die pressing, carving, polishing, wire cutting, welding and inlaying.
Although the number of gold and silver articles of the Han Dynasty unearthed in Xuzhou is not large, but the variety is complete. The dignified and simple seals, strict and regular coins, ornaments of different shapes, and gold and silver threads decorated with jade clothes all show the superb craftsmanship of that era. In particular, the gold belt buckle unearthed from the tomb of King Chu at Shizishan is the most exquisite and advanced belt buckle in the Western Han Dynasty in China.
Part IV Mirroring the Sun and the Moon -- the display of bronze mirrors in the Han Dynasty
The bronze mirrors first appeared in the tombs of Qijia culture in the Neolithic Age more than 4000 years ago. The Han Dynasty was the peak in the history of the development of ancient bronze mirrors in China. It not only unearthed a large number of bronze mirrors with various forms and artistic expressions, but also widely appeared in all social groups.
During the Han Dynasty, the copper industry in Xuzhou was developed. In the bronze mirrors unearthed in Liaoning Province of China and the Kinggi region of Japan, there was an inscription that "copper came from Xuzhou, and it was from Luoyang". Some studies believed that Pengcheng was one of the important mirror casting centers in China at that time. A large number of Han mirrors were unearthed in Xuzhou, and more than 40 bronze mirrors were exhibited with excellent craftsmanship and different shapes. Among them, the portrait mirror unearthed from the tomb of Liu Ling, the marquis of Wanqu, is even better.
Part V Characteristics of Bronze Wares of the Han Dynasty
With the arrival of the Iron Age and the maturity of the ceramic industry, China's brilliant bronze civilization since the Shang Dynasty gradually declined to the Han Dynasty. The bronzes of the Han Dynasty began to develop into daily utensils, which were more practical, mostly plain or with simple patterns. However, there is still a creative development in the casting technology, which occupies a special position in the history of bronze in China.
The Han Dynasty bronzes found in Xuzhou area are mainly in the Western Han Dynasty, with simple and lively shapes, fresh and simple. They have evolved from the expression elements of the Shang and Zhou dynasties bronzes that focus on "ceremony". They have changed from thick to light, and have a variety of types and forms for daily life.